A BRIEF HISTORY

When the results of the surveys carried out by the 'HMS Challenger' team were published in the latter half of the last century, Dittmar proposed a formulation of seven salts that, when mixed would provide a solution to equal that of seawater, which as their results showed was of almost constant composition throughout the major ocean areas surveyed. Dittmar, it seems, had one major advantage over all today; that of surveying relatively unpolluted waters. He was at a disadvantage however in that he did not have at his disposal any modern analytical techniques. The element Strontium, one of the major components of seawater had not then been isolated, and indeed a large number of other 'trace elements' were also unknown. Not until Lyman & Fleming proposed a formula in 1940 using ten salts was an accurate (for 1940 ) synthesis   possible. Their formula when mixed yields a water containing all of the major constituents in correct proportions ,though still lacking in many minor elements. In 1949 their base formula was modified by Chu who extended it to cover an additional thirteen minor components, though not all in correct proportions. With the advances in modern techniques came both more information on the minor ions and the ability to recalculate older material. Man is now able to monitor his own pollution of the Ocean, and, due  in part to this work, greater attention is being paid to the overall importance of the minor components and their functions, if any ,within the marine biosphere.

Below we have attempted to compile an abridged diary of events and advances with regard to the subject. Of neccesity much has had to be omitted.


1872-1876 'HMS Challenger'surveys

1884   Dittmar's report published proposed 9 Ion formula.

1940   Lyman & Flemings recalculation of Dittmar's figures using 1938 Atomic Weights.The Lyman and Fleming formula produced. Proposed 12 Ion formula.

1949   S.P.Chu's formula.   Proposed 25 Ion formula. ***

1957   Publication of revised International Atomic Weights.



1961   International Atomic Weights.

***This formula was designed basically for algal culture.

1961-1968   Most modern formulae were produced during this time. Many of these are discussed later.They contain from 25 to 40 or more Ions in measured proportions.

1968   Data published recording the presence,in sea waters from various areas,of 67 elements.


1969-1972   Modifications to several formulae published.


1973   Publication of revised IUPAC Atomic Weights based on Carbon 12

Background to this report

Primary original commercial research was undertaken by:- (1) at Kraken, the marine biological supply house.    (1967-1969)    (T.R.Hall, J.B.Clark, G.H.Jennings)  (2) Hillness Research    (1969-1971)  (3)  Calypso Research    (1978-1979)  

Gerald Jennings was also the final editor of the document which was published by Calypso Publications in 1979. Many of the variations and corrections to existing formulae were proposed during John Clark’s earlier work at Kraken prior to his posting to Barbados

Table 3
Figures given are taken from various published statistics, and are the latest available for open oceanic waters unaffected by land drainage or other sources. For further reference the bibliography lists several papers on this subject. The table  is also representative of many tropical reef waters .


  THE MOST BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE OR IMPORTANT MINOR CONSTITUENTS OF OPEN OCEAN WATERS

THE MOST BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE OR IMPORTANT MINOR CONSTITUENTS OF OPEN OCEAN WATERS

Figures are taken from various published statistics and are the latest available for open oceanic waters unaffected by land drainage or other sources. For further reference the bibliography lists several papers on this subject. The table above is also representative of many tropical reef waters

HomeHome Acknowledgements Contents List Preface Table 1 Major ions Introduction History Composition Basic Chemistry The Report Knowles Formulae Lyman & Fleming Wiedermann-Kramer Clark 'A' + Segedi-Kelley Clark-Jennings Properties Appendix Glossary Bibliography Conversion Factors Abridged guide Other researchers The Calypso Organization

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