Introduction to Marine Chemistry  The Seawater Manual  Seawater and its properties,composition and behaviour  Oceans by Turekian    A basic guide to the chemistry of marine aquariums and artificial seawaters


Colin Nicol, J.A. THE BIOLOGY OF MARINE ANIMALS. (Pitman, London.) Second edition 1967

Harvey, H. W.   THE CHEMISTRY AND FERTILITY OF SEAWATERS. (C. U. P. 2nd Edition 1966 London & Cambridge)

Lyman, J.& Fleming,R.H. COMPOSITION OF SEAWATER.J.Mar.Res. 1940.

Orr, A. P. & Marshall,S.M. THE FERTILE SEA,the Buckland Lectures, 1957. (Fishing News 1969)

 Provasoli, L.,McLaughlin,J.J.A.b Droop,M.R. THE DEVELOPMENT   OF ARTIFICIAL MEDIA FOR MARINE ALGAE.Arch.Microbiol.,Vo1.25 1957

Riley, J. P.& Skirrow,G.(eds.) CHEMICAL OCEANOGRAPHY.Vols. 1 & 2
1965 (Academic Press,London & New York)

Sverdrup, H. U. ,Johnson, M. W.& Fleming, R. H. THE OCEANS.1942.1087pp (Prentice Hall, New Jersey)

Turekian, K. K. OCEANS. 1968. (Prentice Hall,New Jersey)

We suspect errors in the formulae published in the following (all are popular aquatic booklets)

"Aquarium Water Chemistry" a T.F.H.Publication. (p.20)

"Exotic Marine Fishes" a T.F.H.Publication.

"Saltwater Fishes" a T.F.H.Publication. (p.7)

"Marine Aquarium,The" . Studio Vista. (p.21)

BIBLIOGRAPHY (Currently updated - 2015)

Basic Marine Aquaria Chemistry (Online.pdf file)  BMAC Fundamentals of Water Chemistry for Marine Aquarists

Basic Marine Chemistry  ( Books)  see

Some similar research work undertaken by other researchers.

A History of Tropical Marine Fishkeeping in the United Kingdom 1960-1980, Two Decades of Pioneering - From Angle-Iron to Silicone Rubber    Jennings, al   Calypso Publications, London,


A few online sites of interest:


HomeHome Acknowledgements Contents List Preface Table 1 Major ions Introduction History Composition Basic Chemistry The Report Knowles Formulae Lyman & Fleming Wiedermann-Kramer Clark 'A' + Segedi-Kelley Clark-Jennings Properties Appendix Glossary Bibliography Conversion Factors Abridged guide Other researchers The Calypso Organization

Keywords for this site include: Synthetic Seawaters for Aquaria and Laboratories, Oceanography, biology, marine aquarium water, seawaters, artificial seawater, chemistry, Laboratories, sea water, FORMULATION, formula, recipe, formulae,